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Relations Ranging from Ants and you may Aphids: Behavioural Observations

Simplistic diagram of your own biannual life cycle out-of P. cimiciformis. Intimate breeding takes place with the P. terebinthus trees, the no. 1 machine, in which to five additional morphs are present. Of these years, three write into the distinctive line of galls that they lead to within their host’s simply leaves. Toward the termination of june, the very last age bracket born in galls contains winged aphids you to definitely travel on sources of several gramineous kinds, their secondary servers. Indeed there, they start a succession from options-house wingless parthenogenetic generations composed of a few morphs: the fresh round (RM) as well as the apartment (FM) morphs, correspondingly. These morphs take part in mutualistic connectivity that have ants of your genus Tetramorium. During the summer, several winged morphs can take place. You to definitely disperses the fresh duplicate to help you this new grasses while, within the nations where P. terebinthus is available, a moment winged morph usually fly back to an important machine to give delivery with the intimate morphs. Afg, apterous fundatrigeniae; Elizabeth, eggs; Forex, fundatrix; Yards, male; Sf, intimate female; Sxp, sexuparae; Wfg, winged fundatrigeniae; Wvg, winged virginoparae. Issue draw denotes unsure phenology information in the sources-dwelling phase (Au moment ou Text and you can Fig. S1).